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Buffalo Raceway is a harness race track just south of Buffalo, NY. Hamburg, New York resident James J. Dunnigan opened the doors of Buffalo Raceway in June ofshortly after New York State passed a bill allowing pari-mutuel harness racing. He selected the Erie County Fairgrounds in Hamburg as the site of his venture. The Fairgrounds had a half mile race track and grandstand in place for its Fair activities and, being only 14 miles from downtown Buffalo, provided an excellent location. Racing was very competitive and area residents welcomed a new sport to Western New York.

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Exposure regulated integrated amplifier super xv and betting

Dynamic magnetoelectric effects in bulk and layered composites of cobalt zinc ferrite and lead zirconate titanate. Srinivasan, G. In bulk samples, the transverse and longitudinal couplings are weak and of equal magnitude. A substantial strengthening of ME interactions is evident in layered structures, with the ME voltage coefficient a factor of higher than in bulk samples. Important findings of our studies of layered composites are as follows. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of high value metals from spent lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide based lithium-ion batteries.

A hydrometallurgical process is developed to recover valuable metals of the lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide NCA cathodes from spent lithium-ion batteries LIBs. The preliminary results indicate that HCl provides higher leaching efficiency. In optimum conditions, a complete dissolution is performed for Li, Ni, Co and Al. Ballistic transport of spin waves incident from cobalt leads across cobalt—gadolinium alloy nanojunctions. To compute the spin dynamics, and the SW scattering and ballistic transport, this alloy nanojunction is modeled in the virtual crystal approximation VCA , valid in particular at the length scale of the nanojunction for submicroscopic SW wavelengths.

The phase field matching theory PFMT is applied to compute the localized and resonant magnons on the nanojunction. These magnons, characteristic of the embedded nanostructure, propagate in its symmetry plane with spin precession amplitudes that decay or match the spin wave states in the semi-infinite leads. The eigenvectors of these magnon modes are calculated for certain cases to illustrate the spin precession configurations on the nanojunction. The VCA-PFMT approach is also used to calculate the reflection and transmission spectra for the spin waves incident from the Co leads on the nanojunction.

The results demonstrate resonance assisted maxima for the ballistic SW transmission spectra due to interactions between the incident spin waves and the nanojunction magnon modes. In particular, the positions of the resonance assisted maxima of spin wave transmission can be modified with nanojunction thickness and alloy concentration. Genotoxicity of two heavy metal compounds: lead nitrate and cobalt chloride in Polychaete Perinereis cultrifera.

The present study explores the in vivo and in vitro genotoxic effects of lead nitrate, [Pb NO 3 2 ] a recognized environmental pollutant and cobalt chloride CoCl 2 , an emerging environmental pollutant in polychaete Perinereis cultrifera using comet assay. Despite widespread occurrence and extensive industrial applications, no previous published reports on genotoxicity of these compounds are available in polychaete as detected by comet assay. Pb NO 3 2 showed a concentration and time-dependent genotoxicity whereas CoCl 2 showed a concentration-dependent genotoxicity in in vivo.

Our studies suggest that Pb NO 3 2 and CoCl 2 have potential to cause genotoxic damage, with Pb NO 3 2 being more genotoxic in polychaete and should be used more carefully in industrial and other activities. Graphical abstract. Rahbar, Mohammad H. The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead , mercury, cadmium, aluminum , and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes.

Based on data from pregnant mothers and their newborns who were enrolled from Jamaica in , the arithmetic mean standard deviation concentrations of cord blood lead , mercury, aluminum , and manganese were 0. In univariable General Linear Models, the geometric mean cord blood aluminum concentration was higher for children whose mothers had completed their education up to high school compared to those whose mothers had any education beyond high school Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the concentrations of lead , mercury, cadmium, aluminum , and manganese in umbilical cord blood of Jamaican newborns and to explore the possible association between concentrations of these elements and certain birth outcomes.

Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum , cobalt , chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide. Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum , zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt , nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films.

We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data.

We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films. Loss of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha in the lung alveolar epithelium of mice leads to enhanced eosinophilic inflammation in cobalt -induced lung injury. Hard metal lung disease HMLD is an occupational lung disease specific to inhalation of cobalt -containing particles whose mechanism is largely unknown.

Cobalt is a known hypoxia mimic and stabilizer of the alpha subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors HIFs. Evaluation the concentration of mercury, zinc, arsenic, lead and cobalt in the Ilam city water supply network and resources.

Full Text Available Background: The presence of heavy metals in water resources above threshold levels can be toxic and carcinogenic for consumers. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water distribution network and resources of the city of Ilam in Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study from 6 sources of water supply and also, different parts of the water supply system of Ilam city, samples were collected based on standard sampling methods. The data was analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test.

Results: The concentration of zinc in all water sources of the city of Ilam was higher than WHO guidelines and Iranian standard Contamination by cobalt , arsenic and lead from Ilam dam, Pich-e Ashoori well and Haft Cheshmeh well was higher than national and international standards. The amount of cobalt and mercury at Ilam dam was significantly different from the levels at other sources P lead and arsenic. Because there is a cumulative effect from these metals, appropriate measures are necessary by the relevant agencies to address this problem.

Development of quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys by using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. A highly reliable quantitative analysis for cadmium, lead and chromium in aluminum alloys was developed. Standard samples were made by doping cadmium, lead and chromium into several aluminum alloys, and the composition of standard samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and gravimetric method.

Slope of calibration curves for Al-Cu alloy and Al-Zn-Mg alloy were smaller than other alloy's one, because of the effect by coexistent elements. Hot-dip coating has been practically employed in manufacturing zinc alloy coated steel sheets.

However, it is difficult to coat aluminum alloy on a bulky steel substrate without sufficient preheating, because a rapidly solidified layer containing gas babbles is formed on a substrate surface. A variety of iron-aluminides are also formed at the interface of a steel and aluminum hot-dip coating system, which is the main difficulty in joining of steel with aluminum. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to a steel substrate during hot-dip coating of aluminum alloy to control a rapidly solidified layer and a brittle reaction layer.

Hot dipping of columnar steel substrates into molten aluminum alloy Al The application of ultrasonic vibration is quite effective to control a rapidly solidified layer and a surface oxide layer from a substrate surface by the sonocapillary effect based on a cavitation phenomenon, so that the intimate contact is achieved at the beginning of hot-dip coating.

Tuning of magnetic property by lattice strain in lead substituted cobalt ferrite. The phase purity and structural study have been carried out using X-ray powder diffraction XRD technique. The Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns reveals the increasing lattice parameter with the lead Pb concentration. Detailed analysis of the Raman spectroscopy data supports the XRD pattern analysis results. The large difference in experimental and theoretical saturation magnetic moment per formula unit shows existence of three sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel.

Different mechanisms for lead acetate, aluminum and cadmium sulfate in rat corpus cavernosum. Introduction: Some heavy metals show adverse vascular and neurological effects, however, their effect on erection is underestimated. This study aims to investigate the effect of Pb, Cd and Al on erectile function and their potential mechanism of action in rats. They selectively accumulated in the corpus cavernosum reaching Serum creatinine levels were not altered.

Cd and Al significantly reduced testosterone level to 0. Aluminum elevated TBARs significantly by The acute anti-erectile action of Pb was blocked by non-selective NOS and GC inhibitors and potassium channel blocker. No interaction with muscarinic or nicotinic modulators was observed. Conclusions: Pb, Cd and Al show anti-erectile effect independent on renal injury.

They don not modulate cholinergic nor ganglionic transmission in corpus cavernosum. The effect of Cd and Al but not Pb seems to be hormonal dependent. Fine roots and ectomycorrhizal root tips were sampled in a Norway spruce Picea abies L. The cellular and partly subcellular localizations of aluminum and lead were identified by the micro-analytical laser microprobe mass analysis LAMMA technique. In fine roots with secondary structure, localization of aluminum was limited to the peripheral cell layers.

Lead was found in the outer layers, and also in the primary phloem. Aluminum penetrated the mycorrhizal mantle, but lead was seldom detected in ectomycorrhizae. Do cadmium, lead , and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead , and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population.

A trace metals survey in waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5, men and 13, women aged years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors.

Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined correcting for false discovery rate. Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead , and aluminum.

In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead , and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment. The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated.

The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead , and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder ASD as compared to their matched controls. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to controls.

All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead , and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. The mean Levels of mercury, lead , and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead , and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

Levels of mercury, lead , and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism. Preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt , copper, iron, lead , manganese, nickel and zinc in water samples using 6-methylpyridinecarboxaldehydephenylthiosemicarbazone.

The reagent 6-methylpyridinecarboxaldehydephenylthiosemicarbazone MPAPT has been examined for the pre-concentration of metal ions and determination using air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The metal iron are back extracted in nitric acid or after evaporation of solvent the residue is digested in nitric acid. After necessary adjustment of volume the metal ions were determined in aqueous solution. Pre-concentration is obtained times.

Metal ions recovery was Lead , cadmium and cobalt Pb, Cd, and Co leaching of glass-clay containers by pH effect of food. Recent studies have shown that handcrafted glass-clay containers are a health risk because they can be contaminated by heavy metals, which can be transferred to food, thus reaching the human body to potentially cause illness.

Therefore, in the present work, we evaluate the leaching of lead , cadmium, and cobalt from glass-clay containers into two types of food: tomato sauce salsa , and chickpea puree. The containers were obtained from four regions in the Mexican state of Hidalgo. Repetitive extractions from the containers were carried out to quantify the leaching of the heavy metals into the salsa, the chickpea puree, and acetic acid using the technique proposed by the USFDA.

The results show that greater use of the containers leads to more leaching of heavy metals into both types of food and into the acetic acid, with the greatest metal extraction recorded for the Ixmiquilpan vessels. These results indicate that the metals present in the glass-clay containers leach into the food and that increased reuse increases the risk to the people who use them in food preparation. Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that handcrafted glass-clay containers are a health risk because they can be contaminated by heavy metals, which can be transferred to food, thus reaching the human body to potentially cause illness.

Therefore, in the present work, we evaluate the leaching of lead , cadmium, and cobalt from glass-clay containers into two types of food: tomato sauce salsa, and chickpea puree. Detection of lead pb and aluminum Al metal as contaminant in food prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots Hala in Kosti City, Sudan. Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots Aluminium pots in Kosti market.

Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots Hala.

The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots Hala for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine. The sorbed analytes on biosorbent were eluted by using 1 mol L -1 HCl and analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of analytical parameters including amounts of pH, B. The effects of alkaline, earth alkaline ions and some metal ions on the retentions of the analytes on the biosorbent were also examined.

Separation and preconcentration of Cu, Pb, Fe and Co ions from real samples was achieved quantitatively. The detection limits by 3 sigma for analyte ions were in the range of 0. The presented method was applied to the determination of analyte ions in green tea, black tea, cultivated mushroom, boiled wheat, rice and soil samples with successfully results.

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for simultaneous determination of cadmium, cobalt , lead and nickel in water samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The procedure is based on the injection of a ternary solvent system composed of appropriate quantities of extraction solvent trichloroethylene , dispersive solvent ethanol , and the chelating reagent 2- 2'-benzothiazolylazo -p-cresol into the sample solution. The solution turns turbid immediately after injection, and the analytes are extracted into the droplets of the organic phase which was dried and dissolved in a mixture of Triton X, nitric acid, and ethanol.

The detection limits under optimized conditions are 0. The enrichment factors were also calculated for Cd 13 , Co 11 , Pb 11 and Ni 8. The procedure was applied to the determination of cadmium, cobalt , lead and nickel in certified reference material waterway sediment and water samples.

Full Text Available Cloud point extraction CPE has been used for the preconcentration and simultaneous determination of cobalt Co and lead Pb in fresh and wastewater samples. The extraction of analytes from aqueous samples was performed in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline oxine as a chelating agent and Triton X as a nonionic surfactant. Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of different chemical variables such as pH, amounts of reagents oxine and Triton X, temperature, incubation time, and sample volume.

After phase separation, based on the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to its analysis by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry FAAS. The enhancement factors 70 and 50 with detection limits of 0. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material SRM e was analyzed and the determined values obtained were in a good agreement with the certified values.

The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of Co and Pb in a fresh surface and waste water sample. Polytypic transformations during the thermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate. The isothermal decomposition of cobalt hydroxide and cobalt hydroxynitrate at different intervals of temperature leads to the formation of Co 3 O 4.

The phase evolution during the decomposition process was monitored using powder X-ray diffraction. The transformation of cobalt hydroxide to cobalt oxide occurs via three phase mixture while cobalt hydroxynitrate to cobalt oxide occurs through a two phase mixture. The nature of the sample and its preparation method controls the decomposition mechanism. The comparison of topotactical relationship between the precursors to the decomposed product has been reported in relation to polytypism.

Separation and preconcentration of lead II , cobalt II , and nickel II on EDTA immobilized activated carbon cloth prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in environmental samples. The synthesis and characterization of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid immobilized activated carbon cloth was performed in the present work. Factors including pH, concentration and volume of eluent, sample and eluent flow rates, sample volume, and effect of coexisting ions on the solid phase extraction of analytes were examined.

The preconcentration factor was The detection Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt , lead and zinc in cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt. The concentrations of arsenic As , copper Cu , cobalt Co , lead Pb and zinc Zn in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed.

An enrichment index EI was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants As, Co, Cu, mercury Hg , Pb and Zn in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as mg kg-1 Cu total dry weight [dw].

Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower up to mg kg-1 Cu dw. The concentrations of Co up to 78 mg kg-1 dw , As up to 8 mg kg-1 dw and Zn up to mg kg-1 dw in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As.

Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0. The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health.

Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard. Lead Pb is cheap and there is a long tradition of its use, but its toxic effects have also been recognized. There is increased public health concern regarding the hazards of low dose Pb exposure to adults and children. Studies have shown the risks for hypertension, decrements in renal function, subtle decline in cognitive function, and adverse reproductive outcome at low blood Pb level.

In this study, the possible modulatory role of cobalt II chloride CoCl2 on low level Pb exposure on tail immersion test and formalin induced pain was investigated. Twenty adult Wistar rats of both sexes weight g to g were used. The last group served as control and were given distilled water only. In the tail immersion test, there was no significant change in reaction time for all three groups when compared to the control.

In the formalin-induced pain, pain score after five and forty-five minutes also do not show significant change for all the three groups when compared to control. Calcification of elastin occurs in many pathological cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis. We have previously shown that purified elastin when subdermally implanted in rats undergoes severe calcification and aluminum chloride AlCl3 pretreatment of elastin inhibits calcification.

In the present study we investigated whether matrix metalloproteinase MMP binding to elastin and elastin degradation is prevented by AlCl3 pretreatment. Subdermal implantation of AlCl3-pretreated elas Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water by toxic chemicals has become commonly recognized as an environmental concern. Based on our clinical observation in Mashhad, northeastern Iran, many people might be at risk of exposure to high concentrations of toxic heavy metals in water.

Because wastewater effluents as well as water wells have been commonly used for irrigation over the past decades, there has been some concern on the toxic metal exposure of crops and vegetables irrigated with the contaminated water. Objective: To measure the concentrations of mercury, lead , chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminium in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in Mashhad, northeastern Iran.

Methods: 36 samples were taken from irrigation water wells and a wastewater refinery in North of Mashhad at four times—May , March , and June and July Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of toxic metals. Graphite furnace was used for the measurement of lead , chromium, cadmium and aluminum.

Results: Chromium, cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations in the samples were within the standard range. All wastewater samples contained high mercury concentrations 6. Conclusion: For high mercury and aluminum concentrations, the water sources studied should not be used for agricultural use.

Regular monitoring of the level of heavy metals in water and employing the necessary environmental interventions in this area are strongly recommended. Full Text Available It is essential to understand contaminant exposure and to compare levels of contaminants in organisms at different ages to determine if there is bioaccumulation, and to compare levels encountered in different geographical areas. In this paper, we report levels of mercury, lead , cadmium, cobalt , arsenic and selenium in the blood of semipalmated sandpipers Calidris pusilla wintering in Suriname as a function of age, and compare them to blood levels in northbound migrants at a stopover in Delaware Bay, New Jersey.

We found 1 young birds had higher levels of cadmium, cobalt , and lead than adults after second year birds; 2 there were no age-related differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium; 3 only four of the possible 16 inter-metal correlations were significant, at the 0.

Suriname samples were obtained in April, after both age classes had spent the winter in Suriname, which suggests that sandpipers are accumulating higher levels of trace elements in Suriname than in Delaware Bay. The levels of selenium may be within a range of concern for adverse effects, but little is known about adverse effect levels of trace elements in the blood of wild birds. Evidence of organic luminescent centers in sol-gel-synthesized yttrium aluminum borate matrix leading to bright visible emission.

Yttrium aluminum borate YAB powders prepared by sol-gel process have been investigated to understand their photoluminescence PL mechanism. The amorphous YAB powders exhibit bright visible PL from blue emission for powders calcined at C to broad white PL for higher calcination temperature. The PL broadening corresponds to the apparition of a new band at nm, associated with the formation of aromatic species.

PAH molecules are thus at the origin of the PL as corroborated by slow afterglow decay and thermoluminescence experiments. KGaA, Weinheim. Lead Pb and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker Hypentelium nigricans and other suckers Catostomidae , which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers.

Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc Zn mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker.

Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites.

Determination of trace amounts of lead , arsenic, nickel and cobalt in high-purity iron oxide pigment by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after iron matrix removal with extractant-contained resin.

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry ICP-AES was applied to the determination of lead , arsenic, nickel and cobalt in high-purity iron oxide pigment. Samples were dissolved with hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest was passed through a column, which was packed with a polymer resin containing a neutral organophosphorus extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate.

Iron was sorbed selectively on the resin and the analytes of interest passed through the column, allowing the effective separation of them from the iron matrix. Conditions of separation were optimized. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of these elements in high-purity iron oxide pigment samples.

Unithiol - a cobalt antidote. The blockade of the sulfhydryl groups of the proteins leads to a disturbance of the normal activity of many enzymes and thus of the functioning of the organs and tissue. The search for antidotes against these substances which inactivate the enzymes led to the synthesis of a large group of thiols in the Ukrainian Scientific Research Sanitary Chemical Institute.

Its antidote activity is discussed in detail, especially concerning cobalt intoxication. HK [de. Molybdenum was recovered by solvent extraction using tertiary amines at pH around 1. Cobalt or nickel was separated by addition of aqueous ammonium oxalate at the above pH. Phosphorus was removed by passing the liquid through a strong anion exchange column.

Aluminum was recovered by neutralizing the solution with NaOH. The route presented in this work generates less final aqueous wastes because it is not necessary to use alkaline medium during the metal recovery steps. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum , iron, lead , and water by discrete ordinates method. Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum , iron, lead , and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium.

The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton incoherent and coherent Rayleigh scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness.

On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin. Aluminum Hydroxide.

Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and Study on solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt , copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent. The metal ions in mL solution can be concentrated to 1. The recoveries of analytes at pH 8.

When detected with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, the detection limits in the original samples were 1. The results agreed with the standard value or reference method. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery. Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future Objectives: The aim was to study consumer items using the cobalt spot test.

Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items Ceramic particles typically do not have sufficiently high wettability by molten metal for effective bonding during metal matrix composite fabrication.

In this study, a novel method has been used to overcome this drawback. Micron-sized SiC particles were coated by a cobalt metallic layer using an electroless deposition method. A layer of cobalt on the SiC particles was produced prior to incorporation in molten pure aluminum in order to improve the injected particle bonding with the matrix.

For comparison, magnesium was added to the melt in separate experiments as a wetting agent to assess which method was more effective for particle incorporation. It was found that both of these methods were more effective as regard ceramic particulate incorporation compared with samples produced with as-received SiC particles injected into the pure aluminum matrix.

In addition, microhardness tests revealed that the cobalt coating leads to the fabrication of a harder composite due to increased amount of ceramic incorporation, ceramic-matrix bonding, and possibly also to formation of Al-Co intermetallic phases. Acidic leaching of potentially toxic metals cadmium, cobalt , chromium, copper, nickel, lead , and zinc from two Zn smelting slag materials incubated in an acidic soil. A column leaching study, coupled with acid deposition simulation, was conducted to investigate the leaching of potentially toxic metals PTM from zinc smelting slag materials SSM after being incubated in an acid Alfisol for days at room temperature.

After leaching, 2. This study suggested that incubation of SSMs in acidic soil for a long term can enhance the release of PTMs as the forms of metallic ions and sulfate when subjected to acid deposition leaching. All rights reserved. Cobalt sensitization and dermatitis. It is concluded that cobalt despite being a strong sensitizer and a prevalent contact allergen to come up on patch testing should be regarded as a very complex metal to test with.

Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride. Beryllium- aluminum alloys for investment castings. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium- aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. NMI and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium- aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness.

Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH Comanche helicopter and F jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength.

Aluminum anode for aluminum -air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction.

This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum -air battery. Cadmium, cobalt and lead cause stress response, cell cycle deregulation and increased steroid as well as xenobiotic metabolism in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells which is coordinated by at least nine transcription factors. Workers occupationally exposed to cadmium, cobalt and lead have been reported to have increased levels of DNA damage.

To analyze whether in vivo relevant concentrations of heavy metals cause systematic alterations in RNA expression patterns, we performed a gene array study using primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Differentially expressed genes were filtered out and used to identify enriched GO categories as well as KEGG pathways and to identify transcription factors whose binding sites are enriched in a given set of promoters. A stress response was further corroborated by up regulation of genes involved in glutathione metabolism.

A second major response to heavy metal exposure was deregulation of the cell cycle as evidenced by down regulation of the transcription factors ELK-1 and the Ets transcription factor GABP, as well as deregulation of genes involved in purine and pyrimidine metabolism. A third and surprising response was up regulation of genes involved in steroid metabolism, whereby promoter analysis identified up regulation of SRY that is known to play a role in sex determination.

In conclusion, we have shown that in vivo relevant concentrations of Cd II , Co II and Pb II cause a complex and coordinated response in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. This study gives an overview of the most responsive genes.

Lead inclusions in aluminium. Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction.

Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. E-mail: hnuhu yahoo. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in. Ion exchange of Cobalt and Cadmium in Zeolite X. The growing development in the industry has an important contribution to the environmental damage, where the natural effluents are each day more contaminated by toxic elements, such as: mercury, chromium, lead and cadmium. So as to separate such elements it has sorbent must have enough stability, and have a sharp capacity of sorption.

In this work it was studied the sorption behavior of cobalt and on the other hand, cadmium in aqueous solutions, which along with sodic form of the Zeolite X, undergoes a phenomenon of ionic interchange. Such interchange was verify to different concentration of cadmium, cobalt and hydronium ion. The content of cobalt and sodium in the interchanged samples was detected through the neutronic activation analysis.

The results disclose a higher selectivity for cadmium than cobalt. Analysis of radioactive cobalt. This is a manual published by Science and Technology Agency, Japan, which prescribes on the analysis method for radioactive cobalt which is a typical indexing nuclide among the radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Since the released cobalt is mainly discharged to coastal region together with waste water, this manual is written for samples of sea water, sea bottom sediments and marine organisms.

Radioactive cobalt includes the nuclides of 57 co, 58 Co, 60 Co, etc. Though 60 Co analysis has become feasible comparatively simply due to scintillation or semi-conductor spectrometry, trace 60 Co analysis is performed quantitatively by co-precipitation or collection into alumina and scintillation spectrometry.

This manual employs 60 Co collection by means of ion-exchange method and measurement with low background GM counting system, to analyze quantitatively and rapidly low level 60 Co. It is primarily established as the standard analyzing method for the survey by local autonomous bodies.

It is divided into 4 chapters including introduction sea water, marine organisms, and sea bottom sediments. List of required reagents is added in appendix. Wakatsuki, Y. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery. This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead , mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.

Blood doping by cobalt. Should we measure cobalt in athletes? Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood doping is commonplace in competitive athletes who seek to enhance their aerobic performances through illicit techniques. Presentation of the hypothesis Cobalt , a naturally-occurring element with properties similar to those of iron and nickel, induces a marked and stable polycythemic response through a more efficient transcription of the erythropoietin gene.

Testing the hypothesis Although little information is available so far on cobalt metabolism, reference value ranges or supplementation in athletes, there is emerging evidence that cobalt is used as a supplement and increased serum concentrations are occasionally observed in athletes. Therefore, given the athlete's connatural inclination to experiment with innovative, unfair and potentially unhealthy doping techniques, cobalt administration might soon become the most suited complement or surrogate for erythropoiesis-stimulating substances.

Nevertheless, cobalt administration is not free from unsafe consequences, which involve toxic effects on heart, liver, kidney, thyroid and cancer promotion. Implications of the hypothesis Cobalt is easily purchasable, inexpensive and not currently comprehended within the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list. Moreover, available techniques for measuring whole blood, serum, plasma or urinary cobalt involve analytic approaches which are currently not practical for antidoping laboratories.

Thus more research on cobalt metabolism in athletes is compelling, along with implementation of effective strategies to unmask this potentially deleterious doping practice. Nickel, cobalt , and their alloys. This book is a comprehensive guide to the compositions, properties, processing, performance, and applications of nickel, cobalt , and their alloys.

It includes all of the essential information contained in the ASM Handbook series, as well as new or updated coverage in many areas in the nickel, cobalt , and related industries. Cobalt source calibration. The data obtained from these tests determine the dose rate of the two cobalt sources in SRTC. Building A houses one of these sources while the other resides in room C of Building A.

The data from this experiment shows the following: 1 The dose rate of the No. These rates come from placing the graduated cylinder containing the dosimeter solution in the center of the irradiation chamber. This movement of the sample reduced the measured dose rate 0. This change in position reduced the measured dose rate by This testing used chemical dosimetry to measure the dose rate of a radioactive source.

In this method, one determines the dose by the chemical change that takes place in the dosimeter. For this calibration experiment, the author used a Fricke ferrous ammonium sulfate dosimeter. When this occurs, the solution acquires a slightly darker tint not visible to the human eye.

Dividing the absorbency by the total time in minutes of exposure yields the dose rate. Electrochemical sensor based on EDTA intercalated into layered double hydroxides of magnesium and aluminum for ultra trace level detection of lead II. The chelator ethylene diaminetetraacetate EDTA has been intercalated into layered double hydroxides by the anion exchange method.

The resulting composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Pb II in spiked tap water without any pretreatment. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis —B vaccine formulation. Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens.

Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally i.

The geometric mean of antibody titer GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide.

The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

Cobalt chloride speciation, mechanisms of cytotoxicity on human pulmonary cells, and synergistic toxicity with zinc. Cobalt is used in numerous industrial sectors, leading to occupational diseases, particularly by inhalation. Cobalt -associated mechanisms of toxicity are far from being understood and information that could improve knowledge in this area is required.

We investigated the impact of a soluble cobalt compound, CoCl 2. Cobalt speciation in different culture media, in particular soluble and precipitated cobalt species, was investigated via theoretical and analytical approaches. The cytotoxic effects of cobalt on the cells were assessed. Upon exposure of BEAS-2B cells to cobalt , intracellular accumulation of cobalt and zinc was demonstrated using direct in situ microchemical analysis based on ion micro-beam techniques and analysis after cell lysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ICP-MS.

Microchemical imaging revealed that cobalt was rather homogeneously distributed in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm whereas zinc was more abundant in the nucleus. The modulation of zinc homeostasis led to the evaluation of the effect of combined cobalt and zinc exposure. In this case, a clear synergistic increase in toxicity was observed as well as a substantial increase in zinc content within cells. Western blots performed under the same co-exposure conditions revealed a decrease in ZnT1 expression, suggesting that cobalt could inhibit zinc release through the modulation of ZnT1.

Overall, this study highlights the potential hazard to lung function, of combined exposure to cobalt and zinc. Complete text of publication follows: Cobalt is used in numerous industrial sectors, leading to occupational diseases, particularly by inhalation. We investigated the impact of a soluble cobalt compound, CoCl 2 , on the BEAS-2B lung epithelial cell line, as well as its impact on metal homeostasis.

Investigations on bioaccumulation of cobalt by fish eggs. In ionized form cobalt is taken up by fish eggs directly from the water. Accumulation takes place on the chorion where the metal ions are reversibly bound to functional groups of the protein of the envelope of the egg or of the mycosa. To a small extent there occurs a transport of metal ions into the interior of the egg.

It could not be clarified within the scope of the studies performed if this process is to be attributed to diffusion. Binding of the cobalt ions to the chorion leads , within hours, to a nearly uncharged final state, an apparent equilibrium, whose position is determined by the cobalt ion concentration of the breeding medium.

Complex-forming substances cysteine result in lower absorption rates, too, the concentration of available cobalt ions in the water being reduced. Radio cobalt in French rivers. The isotopes 58 and 60 of cobalt present in liquid wastes from nuclear plants or from fuel reprocessing plant of Marcoule are fixed in the different compartments of French rivers.

Elsewhere, laboratory experimentations show that the contamination of fish occurs essentially from the water way rather than from food. Health physics monitoring during cobalt slug rod handling at research reactor Dhruva: an experience. Verma, Gopal P. Cobalt is used in many industrial and medical applications, such as leveling devices, thickness gauge, sterilization of foodstuff to increase their shelf life, sterilization of medicines and in radiotherapy.

The Cobalt slug rod containing cobalt pencils were irradiated for nearly two and half years in the Dhruva reactor core to obtain the 60 Co isotope. It had seen a total irradiation of MWD and the estimated total activity was Campaign for the removal of irradiated rod from reactor core and retrieval of 60 Co pencils were carried out successfully in Dhruva Reactor complex.

In view of such a high activity handled, the job was carried out after exhaustive prior planning and according to approved checklists. Radiation Hazards Control Unit, Dhruva provided Radiation Safety surveillance during the entire handling operation consisting of retrieval of the cobalt pencils and disposal of the aluminum slugs used to house the cobalt pencils in the Cobalt slug rod assembly.

The whole operation was carried out in such a safe manner that the total man-rem consumption was insignificant. The operational radiation protection methods followed and the experience gained during the campaign are discussed in this paper. Cobalt : for strength and color. Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures.

It is also one of the essential trace elements or "micronutrients" that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted.

The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt -the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about and identified some of its valuable properties. Cobalt release from implants and consumer items and characteristics of cobalt sensitized patients with dermatitis. Six of eight dental alloys and 10 of 98 revised hip implant components released cobalt in the cobalt spot test, whereas none of 50 mobile phones gave positive reactions.

The clinical relevance of positive cobalt test reactions was difficult Materials and methods. The cobalt spot test was used to test for cobalt ion release from mobile phones as well as cobalt Electroplated zinc- cobalt alloy. Recent work on the deposition and use of ectrodeposited zinc- cobalt alloys is surveyed.

Alloys containing lower of Nuclear quantities of cobalt are potentially more useful. Five of those same players were also evaluated during a same-day doubles match WBGT During doubles 4. However, percentage change in body mass T C increased p T C Junior tennis players who begin a match not well hydrated could have progressively increasing thermal strain and a greater risk for exertional heat illness as the match advances. Core temperature rhythms in normal and tumor-bearing mice. Normal mice continuously displayed a stable 24 hour temperature rhythm.

Tumor-bearers displayed a progressive deterioration of the temperature rhythm following inoculation with tumor cells. While such disruptions have been noted by others, details on the dynamics of the changes have been mostly qualitative, often due to time-averaging or steady-state analysis of the data. The present study attempts to quantify the dynamics of the disruption of temperature rhythm when present by continuously monitoring temperatures over periods up to a month.

Analysis indicated that temperature regulation in tumor-bearers was adversely affected during the active period only. Furthermore, it appears that the malignancy may be influencing temperature regulation via pathways not directly attributable to the energy needs of the growing tumor. TC estimates, provides ahead-of-time alerts about an impending rise in TC and 2 an individualized model that uses non-invasive measurements of AC Water turnover and core temperature on Mount Rainier.

Hydration is an important logistical consideration for persons performing in austere environments because water demands must be balanced with the burden of carrying water. Seven novice climbers participated in a study to determine the hydration kinetics and core temperatures associated with a successful summit of Mount Rainier.

Ingestible radio-equipped thermometer capsules were swallowed to monitor core temperature , and an oral dose of deuterium 0. Mean core temperature throughout the 5. Water turnover was There was a trend for reduced body mass from before Hydration demands of climbing Mount Rainier are highly elevated despite modest fluctuations in core temperature. Participants experienced hypohydration but were able to maintain sufficient hydration to successfully summit Mount Rainier and return home safely. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Effect of altered core body temperature on glottal closing force. A basic function of the larynx is to provide sphincteric protection of the lower airway, initiated by a brain stem-mediated glottal closure reflex. Glottal closing force is defined as the measured pressure generated between the vocal folds during glottal closure. One of the factors thought to affect the glottal closure reflex is a variation in core body temperature.

Four adult male Yorkshire pigs were used in this study. The subjects were studied under control conditions 37 degreesC , hyperthermic conditions 38 degrees C to 41 degrees C , and hypothermic conditions 36 degrees C to 34 degrees C. We demonstrated that the glottal closing force increased significantly with an increase in core body temperature and also decreased significantly with decreased core body temperature.

These results are supported by neurophysiological changes demonstrated by other studies in pups and adult dogs in response to altered core body temperatures. The mechanism for these responses is thought to reside centrally, rather than in the peripheral nervous system.

We hope that a better understanding of these aspects of glottal closure will alter the care of many patients with postanesthesia hypothermia and many sedated inmates and will also further enhance preventive measures needed to decrease the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome in overheated or febrile infants.

A volatile-rich Earth's core inferred from melting temperature of core materials. Morard, G. Planetary cores are mainly constituted of iron and nickel, alloyed with lighter elements Si, O, C, S or H. Understanding how these elements affect the physical and chemical properties of solid and liquid iron provides stringent constraints on the composition of the Earth's core.

In particular, melting curves of iron alloys are key parameter to establish the temperature profile in the Earth's core , and to asses the potential occurrence of partial melting at the Core -Mantle Boundary. Core formation models based on metal-silicate equilibration suggest that Si and O are the major light element components, while the abundance of other elements such as S, C and H is constrained by arguments based on their volatility during planetary accretion5,6.

Each compositional model implies a specific thermal state for the core , due to the different effect that light elements have on the melting behaviour of Fe. We recently measured melting temperatures in Fe-C and Fe-O systems at high pressures, which complete the data sets available both for pure Fe7 and other binary alloys8. Compositional models with an O- and Si-rich outer core are suggested to be compatible with seismological constraints on density and sound velocity9.

However, their crystallization temperatures of K at the CMB pressure of GPa are very close to, if not higher than the melting temperature of the silicate mantle and yet mantle melting above the CMB is not a ubiquitous feature. This observation requires significant amounts of volatile elements S, C or H in the outer core to further reduce the crystallisation temperature of the core alloy below that of the lower mantle.

References 1. Wood, B. Siebert, J. Corgne, A. Fischer, R. Acta , Dreibus, G. Acta 60, Background and purpose: Body core temperature Tc changes affect the QT interval, but correction for this has not been systematically investigated. Experimental approach: Anaesthetized beagle dogs were artificially cooled Key results: When QTcV intervals were plotted against changes in Tc , linear correlations were observed in all individual dogs.

Conclusions and implications: This study shows the importance of correcting QTcV intervals for changes in Tc , to avoid misleading interpretations of apparent QTcV interval changes. A fiber optic temperature sensor based on multi- core microstructured fiber with coupled cores for a high temperature environment.

Makowska, A. Sensors based on fiber optics are irreplaceable wherever immunity to strong electro-magnetic fields or safe operation in explosive atmospheres is needed. The sensor utilizes multi- core fibers which are recognized as the dedicated medium for telecommunication or shape sensing, but as we show may be also deployed advantageously in new types of fiber optic temperature sensors.

The sensor presented in this paper is based on a dual- core microstructured fiber Michelson interferometer. The fiber is characterized by strongly coupled cores , hence it acts as an all-fiber coupler, but with an outer diameter significantly wider than a standard fused biconical taper coupler, which significantly increases the coupling region's mechanical reliability. Owing to the proposed interferometer imbalance, effective operation and high-sensitivity can be achieved.

The presented sensor is designed to be used at high temperatures as a result of the developed low temperature chemical process of metal copper or gold coating. The hermetic metal coating can be applied directly to the silica cladding of the fiber or the fiber component. This operation significantly reduces the degradation of sensors due to hydrolysis in uncontrolled atmospheres and high temperatures.

The measurements were performed in a normal gravity environment, using the low-gravity simulator facility at JPL without the magnet being energized. The sample pressure was controlled to 0. The total volume of helium in the sample cell and the hot volume was held constant using a pneumatic low temperature valve. A melting curve thermometer MCT measured the transition temperature Tc with a resolution of about 10 nK through a sidewall probe of the thermal conductivity sample cell.

We employed the same measurement technique and procedure described by DAS. Thus, a small pressure dependence of the amplitude of Tc Q,P is expected since xi sub 0 is very weakly dependent on pressure between SVP and 15 bar, consistent with our measurements. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep.

Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep photosomnolence. Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature Tc drops substantially about 1.

The results show that 1 the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2 the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3 Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4 under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5 toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity.

Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep.

The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. Temperature sensitivity of methanogenesis in a thermokarst lake sediment core. Little is known about temperature sensitivity of permafrost organic carbon OC mineralization over time scales of years to centuries following thaw.

Due to their formation and thaw histories, taliks thaw bulbs beneath thermokarst lakes provide a unique natural laboratory from which to examine how permafrost thawed in saturated anaerobic conditions responds to changes in temperature following long periods of time since thaw.

We hypothesize the thawing of sediments removed a major barrier to C mineralization, leading to rapid initial permafrost C mineralization and preferential mineralization of the most biolabile OC compounds. Recently-deposited sediments at shallow depths in the lake core experienced increases in CH4 production across all incubation. Temperature structure in the Perseus cluster core observed with Hitomi.

The present paper explains the temperature structure of X-ray emitting plasma in the core of the Perseus cluster based on 1. Not only fine structures of K-shell lines in He-like ions, but also transitions from higher principal quantum numbers were clearly resolved from Si through Fe. That enabled us to perform temperature diagnostics using the line ratios of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, and to provide the first direct measurement of the excitation temperature and ionization temperature in the Perseus cluster.

The observed spectrum is roughly reproduced by a single- temperature thermal plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium, but detailed line-ratio diagnostics reveal slight deviations from this approximation. In particular, the data exhibit an apparent trend of increasing ionization temperature with the atomic mass, as well as small differences between the ionization and excitation temperatures for Fe, the only element for which both temperatures could be measured.

The best-fit two- temperature models suggest a combination of 3 and 5 keV gas, which is consistent with the idea that the observed small deviations from a single- temperature approximation are due to the effects of projecting the known radial temperature gradient in the cluster core along the line of sight.

A reduced core to skin temperature gradient, not a critical core temperature , affects aerobic capacity in the heat. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the core to skin temperature gradient during incremental running to volitional fatigue across varying environmental conditions. A secondary aim was to determine if a "critical" core temperature would dictate volitional fatigue during running in the heat. Initial treadmill speed was 3. Every 3 min, starting with speed, speed and grade increased in an alternating pattern speed increased by 0.

Core body temperature , skin temperature , and interface pressure. Relationship to skin integrity in nursing home residents. Modified Latin-square. For-profit nursing home. Convenience sample of 26 residents who scored core temperature ; a disposable thermistor temperature probe, skin temperature ; and a digital interface pressure evaluator, the interface pressure. Although hypotheses were not supported, more research is needed to understand how time in position and multiple chronic illnesses interact to affect skin pressure tolerance.

Individualized estimation of human core body temperature using noninvasive measurements. A rising core body temperature T c during strenuous physical activity is a leading indicator of heat-injury risk. Hence, a system that can estimate T c in real time and provide early warning of an impending temperature rise may enable proactive interventions to reduce the risk of heat injuries.

However, real-time field assessment of T c requires impractical invasive technologies. To address this problem, we developed a mathematical model that describes the relationships between T c and noninvasive measurements of an individual's physical activity, heart rate, and skin temperature , and two environmental variables ambient temperature and relative humidity. A Kalman filter adapts the model parameters to each individual and provides real-time personalized T c estimates.

Using data from three distinct studies, comprising subjects who performed treadmill and cycle ergometer tasks under different experimental conditions, we assessed model performance via the root mean squared error RMSE. The individualized model yielded an overall average RMSE of 0. Furthermore, for 22 unique subjects whose T c exceeded Hence, the individualized model provides a practical means to develop an early warning system for reducing heat-injury risk.

Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer. An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core , a shield surrounding the core , a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.

Maternal adaptations in lipid metabolism are crucial for pregnancy success due to the role of white adipose tissue as an energy store and the dynamic nature of energy needs across gestation. Because lipid metabolism is regulated by the rhythmic expression of clock genes, it was hypothesized that maternal metabolic adaptations involve changes in both adipose clock gene expression and the rhythmic expression of downstream metabolic genes. Maternal core body temperature Tc was investigated as a possible mechanism driving pregnancy-induced changes in clock gene expression.

Adipose expression of clock genes and downstream metabolic genes were determined by quantitative RT-PCR, and Tc was measured by intraperitoneal temperature loggers. Adipose clock gene expression showed robust rhythmicity throughout pregnancy, but absolute levels varied substantially across gestation. Rhythmic expression of the metabolic genes Lipe, Pnpla2, and Lpl was clearly evident before pregnancy; however, this rhythmicity was lost with the onset of pregnancy.

These changes in Tc , however, did not appear to be linked to adipose clock gene expression across pregnancy. The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, NASA s latest crewed spacecraft project, presents many challenges to its designers including ensuring crew survivability during nominal and off nominal landing conditions. With a nominal water landing planned off the coast of San Clemente, California, off nominal water landings could range from the far North Atlantic Ocean to the middle of the equatorial Pacific Ocean.

For all of these conditions, the vehicle must provide sufficient life support resources to ensure that the crew member s core body temperatures are maintained at a safe level prior to crew rescue. This paper will examine the natural environments, environments created inside the cabin and constraints associated with post landing operations that affect the temperature of the crew member. Models of the capsule and the crew members are examined and analysis results are compared to the requirement for safe human exposure.

Further, recommendations for updated modeling techniques and operational limits are included. Estimation of human core temperature from sequential heart rate observations. Core temperature CT in combination with heart rate HR can be a good indicator of impending heat exhaustion for occupations involving exposure to heat, heavy workloads, and wearing protective clothing. However, continuously measuring CT in an ambulatory environment is difficult.

To address this problem we developed a model to estimate the time course of CT using a series of HR measurements as a leading indicator using a Kalman filter. This paper aims to improve the prediction of rectal temperature T re from insulated skin temperature T is and micro-climate temperature T mc previously reported Richmond et al. Physiol Meas ; Twelve male T mc and relative humidity were measured within the clothing.

T re was monitored as the 'gold standard' measure of T c for industrial or military applications using a 10cm flexible probe Grant, Cambridge, UK. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was run to determine which of 30 variables T is, T s at 11 sites, HR, f, T mc, temperature , and humidity inside the clothing front and back, body mass, age, body fat, sex, clothing, Thermal comfort, sensation and perception, and sweat rate were the strongest on which to base the model.

Insulated skin temperature was the most important individual. Recent high-quality observations of low surface brightness LSB galaxies have shown that their dark matter DM halos prefer flat central density profiles. However, the standard cold dark matter model simulations predict a more cuspy behavior.

One mechanism used to reconcile the simulations with the observed data is the feedback from star formation. While this mechanism may be successful in isolated dwarf galaxies, its success in LSB galaxies remains unclear. Additionally, the inclusion of too much feedback in the simulations is a double-edged sword—in order to obtain a cored DM distribution from an initially cuspy one, the feedback recipes usually require one to remove a large quantity of baryons from the center of the galaxies; however, some feedback recipes produce twice the number of satellite galaxies of a given luminosity and with much smaller mass-to-light ratios from those that are observed.

Therefore, one DM profile that produces cores naturally and that does not require large amounts of feedback would be preferable. We find both requirements to be satisfied in the scalar field dark matter model. Here, we consider that DM is an auto-interacting real scalar field in a thermal bath at temperature T with an initial Z 2 symmetric potential. As the universe expands, the temperature drops so that the Z 2 symmetry is spontaneously broken and the field rolls down to a new minimum.

We give an exact analytic solution to the Newtonian limit of this system, showing that it can satisfy the two desired requirements and that the rotation curve profile is no longer universal. Ambient temperature exerts a prominent influence on sleep. In rats and humans, low ambient temperatures generally impair sleep, whereas higher temperatures tend to promote sleep. Furthermore, higher ambient temperatures also promote recuperative sleep after SD.

Thus, in mice, higher ambient temperatures reduced sleep depth under normal conditions, but augmented the recuperative response to sleep loss. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature , skin temperature , and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate.

A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables. Effect of change in ambient temperature on core temperature during the daytime. In this study, the hypothesis is tested that continuous increases in ambient temperature Ta during daytime would give elevated core and skin temperatures , and consequently better thermal sensation and comfort.

Rectal temperature Tre , skin temperatures and regional dry heat losses at 7 sites were continuously measured for 10 Japanese male subjects in three thermal conditions: cond. Oxygen consumption was measured and thermal sensation and comfort votes were monitored at 15 min intervals. Body weight loss was measured at 1 h intervals.

While Tre increased continuously in the morning period in any condition, it increased to a significantly greater p core temperature during daytime, particularly for a resting person. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core -body temperature. There has been increasing interest to measure core -body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" Hillman et al.

Two types of anchors were used: a long "fingers" 4. The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position rotate within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core -body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors.

This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected. Three magnetic powder cores and one ferrite core , which are commonly used in inductor and transformer design for switch mode power supplies, were selected for investigation at cryogenic temperatures.

The performance of four inductors utilizing these cores has been evaluated as a function of temperature from 20 C to C. All cores were wound with the same wire type and gauge to obtain equal values of inductance at room temperature. Each inductor was evaluated in terms of its inductance, quality Q factor, resistance, and dynamic hysteresis characteristics B-H loop as a function of temperature and frequency. Both sinusoidal and square wave excitations were used in these investigations. Measured data obtained on the inductance showed that both the MPC and the HFC cores maintain a constant inductance value, whereas with the KMC and ferrite core hold a steady value in inductance with frequency but decrease as temperature is decreased.

All cores exhibited dependency, with varying degrees, in their quality factor and resistance on test frequency and temperature. Except for the ferrite, all cores exhibited good stability in the investigated properties with temperature as well as frequency. Details of the experimental procedures and test results are presented and discussed in the paper.

Cognitive function can be impaired after passive heat exposure and with an elevation in core body temperature Tcore. This study examined the dynamic correlation among passive heat exposure, Tcore, and cognition. We could not estimate an appropriate curve model for either alerting or orienting with Tcore, change in Tcore, or duration of passive heat exposure. We estimated linear models for executive control score and Tcore 0.

Different attentional abilities had different sensitivities to thermal stress. Executive control of attention deteriorated linearly with a rise in Tcore within the normal physiologic range, but deteriorated nonlinearly with longer passive heat exposure. Modification of core body temperature by amino acid administration. The feeling of warmth after a meal is caused by the ingestion of nutrients and the sensation is known as nutrition-induced thermogenesis or specific dynamic action.

Core body temperature Tb is constantly maintained within a narrow range, but thermoregulation can become impaired by the inhalation or intravenous administration of anesthetics that inhibit hypothalamic thermoregulation. Hypothermia during surgery is directly associated with postoperative complications.

Devices are available to maintain heat during surgery and thus prevent hypothermia. On the other hand, intravenous amino acid AA administration can attenuate hypothermia during anaesthesia, prompting many clinical trials of AA mixtures to maintain Tb.

However, although the thermal effect of AA during anaesthesia is obvious, the underlying mechanism of metabolic heat production and accumulation remains obscure. A nutritional physiological approach using a rat model will be introduced in this symposium. Data from our recent studies suggest that the administration of an AA mixture during anaesthesia stimulates muscle protein synthesis via insulin-mTOR-dependent activation of the translation initiation factors, 4E-BP 1 and S6K1, as a result of increased insulin concentrations.

Thus, heat accumulation in the body is facilitated. Furthermore, the content of the AA mixture applied during anaesthesia alters the thermal effect and branched chain AAs are necessary, but not sufficient, for the prevention of hypothermia. Transport critical current measurement apparatus using liquid nitrogen cooled high- Tc superconducting magnet with variable temperature insert.

We have developed an apparatus to investigate transport critical current Ic as a function of magnetic field and temperature using only liquid nitrogen. The magnet, which is operated in depressurized liquid nitrogen, generates magnetic field up to 1. The sample is also immersed in liquid nitrogen. The pressure in the VTI is controlled from 0. We have confirmed the long-term stable operation of the Bi magnet at 1 T.

The temperature stability of the sample at high transport current was also demonstrated. The apparatus provides easy-operating Ic measurement environment for a high- Tc superconductor up to A in magnetic fields up to 1 T and in temperatures ranging from 66 to 88 K.

Ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor-MHD system for space nuclear electric power. The conceptual design of a nuclear space power system based on the ultrahigh temperature vapor core reactor with MHD energy conversion is presented. This UF4 fueled gas core cavity reactor operates at K maximum core temperature and 40 atm. Materials experiments, conducted with UF4 up to K, demonstrate acceptable compatibility with tungsten-molybdenum-, and carbon-based materials.

The supporting nuclear, heat transfer, fluid flow and MHD analysis, and fissioning plasma physics experiments are also discussed. The activity of Tc CYS4 modified by variations in pH and temperature can affect symptoms of witches' broom disease of cocoa, caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. The phytocystatins regulate various physiological processes in plants, including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, mainly because they act as inhibitors of cysteine proteases.

In this study, we have analyzed four cystatins from Theobroma cacao L. The recombinant cystatins were purified and subjected to the heat treatment, at different temperatures , and their thermostabilities were monitored using their ability to inhibit papain protease. A variation in the titratable acidity was observed in tissues of T. Our findings suggest that the oligomerization of Tc CYS4, favored by variations in pH, is an endergonic process.

We speculate that this process can be involved in the development of the symptoms of witches' broom disease in cocoa. Core and rectal temperatures were monitored throughout the day in 6 resting dogs and during a minute strenuous retrieving exercise in 6 dogs. Time required for the sensor to leave the stomach to min was variable.

Resting dogs had a core temperature that was on average 0. Core temperature in exercising dogs was on average 0. Determination of the core temperature of a Li-ion cell during thermal runaway. Safety and performance of Li-ion cells is severely affected by thermal runaway where exothermic processes within the cell cause uncontrolled temperature rise, eventually leading to catastrophic failure.

Most past experimental papers on thermal runaway only report surface temperature measurement, while the core temperature of the cell remains largely unknown. This paper presents an experimentally validated method based on thermal conduction analysis to determine the core temperature of a Li-ion cell during thermal runaway using surface temperature and chemical kinetics data.

Experiments conducted on a thermal test cell show that core temperature computed using this method is in good agreement with independent thermocouple-based measurements in a wide range of experimental conditions. The validated method is used to predict core temperature as a function of time for several previously reported thermal runaway tests. In each case, the predicted peak core temperature is found to be several hundreds of degrees Celsius higher than the measured surface temperature.

This shows that surface temperature alone is not sufficient for thermally characterizing the cell during thermal runaway. Besides providing key insights into the fundamental nature of thermal runaway, the ability to determine the core temperature shown here may lead to practical tools for characterizing and mitigating thermal runaway.

Relationship between core temperature , skin temperature , and heat flux during exercise in heat. This paper investigates the relationship between core temperature T c , skin temperature T s and heat flux HF during exercise in hot conditions. T s and HF from six sites on the forehead, sternum, pectoralis, left rib cage, left scapula, and left thigh, and T c i. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to derive algorithms that estimate T c from T s and HF at each site.

A simple model was developed to simulate influences of thermal conductivity and thickness of the local body tissues on the relationship between T c, T s, and HF. Coefficient of determination R 2 ranged from 0. Good sites for T c measurement at surface were the sternum, and a combination of the sternum, scapula, and rib sites.

The forehead was found unsuitable for exercise in heat due to sweating and evaporative heat loss. The derived algorithms are likely applicable only for the same ensemble or ensembles with similar thermal and vapor resistances. Algorithms for T c measurement are location-specific and their accuracy is dependent, to a large degree, on sensor placement. Urine temperature as an index for the core temperature of industrial workers in hot or cold environments.

Workers working in hot or cold environments are at risk for heat stroke and hypothermia. In Japan, people including 47 workers died of heat stroke in Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, Japan While the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists ACGIH recommendation lists the abnormal core temperature of workers as a criterion for halting work, no method has been established for reliably measuring core temperatures at workplaces.

ISO Ergonomics-evaluation of thermal strain by physiological measurements. ISO copyright office, Geneva, pp ; recognizes urine temperature as an index of core temperature only at normal temperature. In this study we ascertained whether or not urine temperature could serve as an index for core temperature at temperatures above and below the ISO range. We measured urine temperature of 31 subjects At all ambient temperature settings, urine temperature correlated closely with rectal temperature exhibiting small mean bias.

Hence, urine temperature as measured by the present method is a practical surrogate index for rectal temperature and represents a highly reliable biological monitoring index for assessing hot and cold stresses of workers at actual workplaces. The effect of core configuration on temperature coefficient of reactivity in IRR Experiments designed to measure the effect of coolant moderator temperature on core reactivity in an HEU swimming pool type reactor were performed.

It was found that in the second core loading factors other than the moderator temperature influence the core reactivity more than expected. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body. While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time.

Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature , encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time.

Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion.

This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role. YBCO microbolometer operating below Tc - A modelization based on critical current- temperature dependence. Using careful measurements of the I-V curve of a YBCO thin-film microbridge under light irradiation at nm and temperature close to 77 K, it is shown that the critical current versus temperature dependence is a good thermometer for estimating bolometric effects in the film.

A novel dynamic voltage bias is introduced which directly gives the device current responsitivity and greatly reduces risks of thermal runaway. We present that technetium 99 Tc immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste.

Dietary glutamine prevents the loss of intestinal barrier function and attenuates the increase in core body temperature induced by acute heat exposure. Dietary glutamine Gln supplementation improves intestinal function in several stressful conditions.

Therefore, in the present study, the effects of dietary Gln supplementation on the core body temperature T core , bacterial translocation BT and intestinal permeability of mice subjected to acute heat stress were evaluated. Mice were orally administered diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid radiolabelled with technetium 99m Tc for the assessment of intestinal permeability or 99m Tc -Escherichia coli for the assessment of BT.

Dietary Gln supplementation attenuated hyperthermia and prevented the increases in intestinal permeability and BT induced by heat exposure. No correlations were observed between the improvements in gastrointestinal function and the attenuation of hyperthermia by Gln. Our findings indicate that dietary Gln supplementation preserved the integrity of the intestinal barrier and reduced the severity of hyperthermia during heat exposure.

The findings also indicate that these Gln-mediated effects occurred through independent mechanisms. The effect of ambient temperature , with and without active warming, on intraoperative core temperature remains poorly characterized. The authors determined the effect of ambient temperature on core temperature changes with and without forced-air warming.

Linear mixed-effects models assessed the effects of ambient temperature , warming method, and their interaction. After an average of 3. Ambient intraoperative temperature has a negligible effect on core temperature when patients are warmed with forced air. The effect is larger when patients are passively insulated, but the magnitude remains small. Ambient temperature can thus be set to comfortable levels for staff in patients who are actively warmed.

Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods. The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature e.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods skin temperature , skin heat flux, heart rate were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model.

We identified six parameters three skin temperatures , two skin heat fluxes and heart rate , which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation rmsd was in the range from 0. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature.

The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters e. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

Maintenance of core temperature is a major component of h energy expenditure, and its dysregulation could contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity. The relationship among temperature , sex, and BMI, however, has not been fully elucidated in humans. This study investigated core temperature in obese and lean individuals at rest, during min exercise, during sleep, and after food consumption.

Twelve lean Females were measured in the follicular menstrual phase. Core temperature was measured every minute for 24 h using the CorTemp system, a pill-sized sensor that measures core temperature while in the gastrointestinal tract and delivers the measurement via a radio signal to an external recorder. Skin temperature and core -peripheral temperature gradient as markers of hemodynamic status in critically ill patients: a review.

To examine the evidential basis underpinning the monitoring of skin temperature and core -peripheral temperature gradient as elements of hemodynamic assessment in critically ill and adult cardiac surgical patients. Twenty-six studies examining the efficacy of skin temperature or temperature gradient as markers of hemodynamic status were selected as part of an integrative review. Evidence pertaining to the efficacy of these parameters as markers of cardiac function is equivocal and has not been well appraised in the adult cardiac surgical population.

Skin temperature and systemic vascular resistance are also affected by factors other than cardiac output. Skin temperature and core -peripheral temperature gradient should not be considered in isolation from other hemodynamic parameters when assessing cardiac status until they are validated by further large-scale prospective studies.

Published by Mosby, Inc. Lateral temperature variations at the core -mantle boundary deduced from the magnetic field. Recent studies of the secular variation of the earth's magnetic field over periods of a few centuries have suggested that the pattern of fluid motion near the surface of earth's outer core may be strongly influenced by lateral temperature variations in the lowermost mantle. This paper introduces a self-consistent method for finding the temperature variations near the core surface by assuming that the dynamical balance there is geostrophic and that lateral density variations there are thermal in origin.

As expected, the lateral temperature variations are very small. Some agreement is found between this pattern and the pattern of topography of the core -mantle boundary, but this does not conclusively answer to what extent core surface motions are controlled by the mantle, rather than being determined by processes in the core. This paper examines photoemission measurements of the alkaline Earth core levels of high- temperature superconductors and related materials, models that seek to explain the large negative shifts observed relative to the corresponding alkaline Earth metals, and the effect of lattice site disorder on the core level spectra and the presence or absence of intrinsic surface peaks.

The statistical analysis of circadian phase and amplitude in constant-routine core-temperature data. Accurate estimation of the phases and amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature series is crucial for making inferences about the properties of the human biological clock from data collected under this protocol.

This paper presents a set of statistical methods based on a harmonic-regression-plus-correlated-noise model for estimating the phases and the amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature data. The methods include a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure for computing the uncertainty in these circadian functions. We illustrate the techniques with a detailed study of a single subject's core-temperature series and describe their relationship to other statistical methods for circadian data analysis.

In our laboratory, these methods have been successfully used to analyze more than constant routines and provide a highly reliable means of extracting phase and amplitude information from core-temperature data. Is propensity to obesity associated with the diurnal pattern of core body temperature? Obesity affects more than half a billion people worldwide, but the underlying causes remain unresolved. It has been proposed that propensity to obesity may be associated with differences between individuals in metabolic efficiency and in the energy used for homeothermy.

It has also been suggested that obese-prone individuals differ in their responsiveness to circadian rhythms. We investigated both these hypotheses by measuring the core body temperature at regular and frequent intervals over a diurnal cycle, using indigestible temperature loggers in two breeds of canines known to differ in propensity to obesity, but prior to divergence in fatness.

Greyhounds obesity-resistant and Labradors obesity-prone were fed indigestible temperature loggers. Gastrointestinal temperature was recorded at min intervals for the period of transit of the logger. Diet, body condition score, activity level and environment were similar for both groups. Energy digestibility was also measured.

The mean core body temperature in obesity-resistant dogs There were no differences in diet digestibility. Canines differing in propensity to obesity, but prior to its onset, differed little in mean core temperature , supporting similar findings in already-obese and lean humans. Obese-prone dogs were less variable in daily core temperature fluctuations, suggestive of a degree of circadian decoupling.

Fibre Bragg grating encapted with no- core fibre sensors for SRI and temperature monitoring. The wavelength shift in FBG reacts directly proportional to the temperature with a sensitivity of while the sensitivity of NCF was measured as An intensive temperature sensor based on a liquid- core optical fiber has been demonstrated for the measuring the temperature of the environment. The core of fiber is filled with a mixture of toluene and chloroform in order to make the refractive index of the liquid- core and the cladding of the fiber close.

Based on the dielectric-clad liquid core fiber model, a simulation was carried out and the calculated results were in good accord with the experimental measurement. Technetium 99 Tc immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste.

However, Tc retention in glass melt samples prepared using Tc -incorporated Fe minerals were moderately higher than in glass prepared using KTcO4 because of limited and delayed Tc volatilization. Real-time detection of basic physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate is an important target in wearable smart devices for healthcare.

Among these, the core body temperature is one of the most important basic medical indicators of fever, insomnia, fatigue, metabolic functionality, and depression. However, traditional wearable temperature sensors are based upon the measurement of skin temperature , which can vary dramatically from the true core body temperature. Here, we demonstrate a three-dimensional 3D printed wearable "earable" smart device that is designed to be worn on the ear to track core body temperature from the tympanic membrane i.

The device is fully integrated with data processing circuits and a wireless module for standalone functionality. Using this smart earable device, we demonstrate that the core body temperature can be accurately monitored regardless of the environment and activity of the user. In addition, a microphone and actuator are also integrated so that the device can also function as a bone conduction hearing aid.

Using 3D printing as the fabrication method enables the device to be customized for the wearer for more personalized healthcare. This smart device provides an important advance in realizing personalized health care by enabling real-time monitoring of one of the most important medical parameters, core body temperature , employed in preliminary medical screening tests. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture. Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals.

Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok Antidorcas marsupialis , a medium-sized antelope.

Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. Liquid core microbubble resonators for highly sensitive temperature sensing.

Q-factors for the most thermally sensitive modes are typically , equivalent to a measurement resolution of 8. The thermal shift rate is determined for different modes when the core of the microbubble is filled with air, water, and ethanol.

Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements. This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal sensor, with an oesophageal sensor and with the SensorTouch. After entering a warm chamber the SensorTouch underestimated the core temperature during the first 10 minutes. After that, the SensorTouch was not significantly different from the core temperature , with an average difference of 0.

The largest differences between the SensorTouch and the core temperature existed 15 minutes after the start of the exercise. During this period the SensorTouch was significantly higher than the core temperature. The SensorTouch did not provide reliable values of the body temperature during periods of increasing body temperature , but the SensorTouch might work under stable conditions. Various anti-motion sickness drugs and core body temperature changes.

Blood flow changes and inactivity associated with motion sickness appear to exacerbate the rate of core temperature decrease during subsequent body cooling. We investigated the effects of various classes of anti-motion sickness drugs on core temperature changes. There were 12 healthy male and female subjects yr old who were given selected classes of anti-motion sickness drugs prior to vestibular Coriolis cross coupling induced by graded yaw rotation and periodic pitch-forward head movements in the sagittal plane.

All subjects were then immersed in water at 18 degrees C for a maximum of 90 min or until their core temperature reached 35 degrees C. A 7-d washout period was observed between trials. Core temperature and the severity of sickness were monitored throughout each trial. A repeated measures design was performed on the severity of sickness and core temperature changes prior to motion provocation, immediately after the motion sickness end point, and throughout the period of cold-water immersion.

The effect of this attenuation was lower in less effective drugs. Our results suggest that the two most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are also the most effective in attenuating the rate of core temperature decrease. Simultaneous strain and temperature measure based on a single suspended core photonic crystal fiber.

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